城市规划

2015, v.39;No.335(05) 76-82

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美国城市开放空间规划的内容和案例解析
CONTENTS AND CASE STUDY OF OPEN SPACE PLANNING IN THE USA

方家;吴承照;
FANG Jia;WU Chengzhao;

摘要(Abstract):

美国城市开放空间规划既有国家层面的规范指南要求,同时又有州、市层面自己的侧重点和特殊性要求。NPRA是美国最具权威性的非盈利性组织,1995年发布的《公园游憩开放空间和绿道规划指南》是全美城市开放空间规划的共同指南,包括规划内容、方法、类型和标准等。州级规划指南突出调查评估现有州级别游憩项目和活动需求,明确机构的角色和责任,并为所有游憩项目策划者、供给者提供发展建议。市级规划指南在公众参与和社区人口构成的基础上进行需求调查和评价,通过管理策略进行协调,满足居民、发展商、当地政府等多方的利益诉求。从波士顿规划案例可以看出城市开放空间规划与我国城市绿地系统规划的不同,主要区别在于前者从本地居民游憩使用角度出发,以城市居民游憩需求调查的量化分析和预测为依据,整合空间资源、社会资源,结合项目策划和供给计划,注重从规划依据的采集、规划制定到实施运营的系统性。
There are different guidelines for urban open space system planning in the USA, including not only national guidelines but also state-level and city-level specific requirements. The Park, Recreation, Open Space and Greenway Guidelines, issued in 1995 by NRPA which is the most important nonprofi t organization in the USA, is the national open space guideline for all the cities in the USA, including planning contents, methods, and open space classifi cations and standards. The statelevel guideline, SCORP, focuses on the investigation and evaluation of the recreational needs, clarifi es the role and responsibility of institutions, and provides development strategies for sponsors and suppliers. The city-level guideline for urban open space system planning conducts demand investigations and evaluations based on public participation and community population, and coordinates and satisfi es the different demands and interests between communities, developers, and local governments through management strategies. The case study on Boston shows the differences between open space system planning in the USA and green space planning in China. Starting with the investigation on the residents' recreational demands, the open space system planning in the USA takes the quantitative analysis on the investigation results and prediction as the basis, integrates spatial resources with social resources, combines project scheming with supply plan, and attaches great importance to the systematization from demand investigation and planning formulation to implementation and operation.

关键词(KeyWords): 美国;城市;开放空间;案例
the USA;city;open space;case

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(51278347);; 同济大学高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室课题;; 2009年国家留学基金委“国家建设高水平大学公派研究生项目”资助

作者(Authors): 方家;吴承照;
FANG Jia;WU Chengzhao;

参考文献(References):

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