城市规划

2018, v.42;No.374(05) 9-17

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论空间规划体系的构建——兼析空间规划、国土空间用途管制与自然资源监管的关系
CONSTRUCTION OF THE SPATIAL PLANNING SYSTEM: WITH DISCUSSIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPATIAL PLANNING, TERRITORIAL SPATIAL REGULATION, AND NATURAL RESOURCES SUPERVISION

林坚;吴宇翔;吴佳雨;刘诗毅;
LIN Jian;WU Yuxiang;WU Jiayu;LIU Shiyi;

摘要(Abstract):

近年来,随着生态文明建设的不断推进,建立空间规划体系、统一国土空间用途管制和完善自然资源监管体制成为备受瞩目的问题。研究三者的关系发现:(1)建立空间规划体系的初衷是立足生态文明体制改革、完善自然资源监管体制,实施国土空间用途管制是其中的连接点;(2)自然资源监管可以区分为载体使用许可、载体产权许可和产品生产许可3个环节;国土空间首先是自然资源的载体,国土空间用途管制对应资源载体使用许可,是载体产权许可和产品生产许可的前置条件;(3)空间规划服务并作用于国土空间用途管制,现实类型多,但内容、管理逻辑基本相同,产生的冲突是因土地发展权管理权力之争带来的;(4)国家机构改革方案表明,以资源保护为出发点的一级土地发展权管理,对属于地方事权的二级土地发展权管理产生了更强的约束力,国土空间用途管制内容也将包括"建还是种"、"种什么"、"建什么"、"建多少"等;(5)未来两级土地发展权的统一归口管理,要求空间规划管理既要管好全域国土空间的重要控制边界,也得管住微观的用地、用海行为,这对空间规划体系的构建和实施提出了更高的要求;(6)构建空间规划体系,应立足于生态文明建设的根本大计、长远大计,承担起基础性、指导性、约束性的功能;结合"管什么"、"谁来管"、"怎么管"的"管""用"前提,设想构建"一总四专、五级三类"的新时代空间规划体系,推进"三基一水两条线,两界一区五张网"的保护开发边界"落地"。
With the reform for promoting ecological progress in recent years, much attention has been paid to such issues as establishingspatial planning system, unifying territorial spatial regulation, and improving natural resources supervision. Discussing the relationship among the above three issues, this paper finds the following points. Firstly, the original intention of establishing a spatial planning system is to reform the ecocivilization system and to improve natural resources supervision, with implementing territorial spatial regulation as the link of these two tasks. Secondly, natural resources supervision can be divided into three stages, namely land development regulation, land entitlement permission, and production supervision; territorial space first of all is the carrier of natural resources, and territorial spatial regulation, corresponding to land development regulation, is the precondition of land entitlement permission and production supervision. Thirdly, various types of spatial planning all serve and impact territorial spatial regulation, whose contents and logic are basically the same despite their different forms and the conflict between them, whichis indeed a consequence of their competition for the management of land development rights. Fourthly, the plan for national institutional reform indicates that, the management of primary land development rights starting from resource conservation imposes substantial constraints on the management of secondary land development rights, which pertains to local affairs. The content of territorial spatial regulation should include "to build or to plant," "what to plant," "what to build," and "how much to build." Fifthly, the future unified management of primary and secondary land development rights may raise higher requirements for the establishment and enforcement of a spatial planning system, requiring that the management of spatial planning not only to control the main redlines of the whole region, but also to control the micro behaviors of land use and sea use. Sixthly, the spatial planning system in the new era should be constructed according to the fundamental requirements of ecological progress, to undertake the basic, guiding, and constraining functions. It may be designed as "one master plan and four special plans, at five levels and by three types" considering "what to manage," "who will manage," and "how to manage," to promote the implementation of "three bases-one water system-two lines, two boundaries-one zone-five networks"-based protection development boundary.

关键词(KeyWords): 空间规划体系;国土空间用途管制;自然资源监管;生态文明体制改革;土地发展权
spatial planning system;territorial spatial regulation;natural resources supervision;reform for promoting ecological progress;land development right

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 研究阐释党的十九大精神国家社科基金专项课题(18VSJ041)

作者(Authors): 林坚;吴宇翔;吴佳雨;刘诗毅;
LIN Jian;WU Yuxiang;WU Jiayu;LIU Shiyi;

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